Colorectal Surgery: Different Types & Techniques Used
Colorectal surgery saves tens of thousands of lives every year by repairing damages to colon, rectum, and anus. These are the components of our lower digestive tract that plays a critical role in detoxifying our body by excreting the solid wastes.
There can be many and varied types of conditions addressed by colorectal surgery. Some of them are:
- Colon cancer
- Ulcerative colitis
- Crohn’s disease
- Inflammatory Bowel Syndrome(IBS)
- Diverticular disease
- Anal fissure
- Bowel incontinence
The boundary of Colorectal surgery also includes hernia operation in the pelvic area and a condition called rectocele.
In a colorectal surgery process, often the surgeon gets assisted by other surgeons (gynecologists and urologists), gastroenterologists, and nurses who are specialists in areas such as stoma therapy, cancer care, and inflammatory bowel disease.
Techniques used in colorectal surgery:
Present day colorectal surgeries are performed using either of the two techniques: laparoscopy and laparotomy.
- Laparoscopy involves inserting an instrument called laparoscope through a small incision( 1-2 cm.) and removing the resected part out by making another incision( 5 - 7 cm.) in the abdomen.
- Laparotomy requires a single wide incision( 10 - 20 cm. ) in the abdomen, vertically or horizontally.
Different types of colorectal surgery:
- Right Hemicolectomy - Resection of the entire right side of the colon including the appendix, cecum and ascending colon.
- Transverse colectomy - Resection of the transverse colon.
- Left Hemicolectomy - Resection of the left side of the colon.
- Sigmoidectomy - Resection of the sigmoid colon.
- Low Anterior Resection - Resection of the sigmoid colon and part of the rectum.
- Abdominoperineal Resection - Resection of sigmoid colon, rectum, and anus.
- Total colectomy - Resection of the entire colon.
- Proctocolectomy - Resection of colon, rectum, and anus.